A lawful permanent resident (LPR) who wishes to apply for naturalization should submit his N-400 application while his green card still has at least six (6) months of validity. This is to avoid having to pay the filing fee and biometric fee amounting to $450 for his green card renewal.
While LPRs or green card holders who have resided here in the US for at least 5 years (3 years if married to US citizen) and have met all other requirements for US naturalization can already apply for US citizenship, for some reasons, some wait longer before they apply. A few wait until their ten-year green card is about to expire to apply for naturalization.
It is worth noting that the I-551 or the permanent resident card expires every ten years. To those who want to continue to become green card holders and stay that way, they need to file an I-90 six months before its expiration date.
The USCIS Field Operations Directorate recently clarified in a teleconference that a naturalization applicant with a pending N-400 application must apply for a renewal of his green card if it will expire within six (6) months. This means that the naturalization applicant needs to submit an I-90 with the corresponding filing fees. USCIS will issue an Alien Documentary Identification and Telecommunication (ADIT) stamp as temporary proof of permanent residence upon showing of an I-90 receipt notice.
Take note that if your green card has already expired, you may encounter problems when you travel, seek or keep employment or apply for public benefits.
In addition, not carrying a valid green card is considered a misdemeanor. Section 264 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) states, “Every alien in the United States . . . shall be issued a certificate of alien registration or an alien registration receipt card in such form and manner and at such time as shall be prescribed under regulations . . Every alien, eighteen years of age and over, shall at all times carry with him and have in his personal possession any certificate of alien registration or alien registration receipt card issued to him . . .. Any alien who fails to comply with these provisions shall be guilty of a misdemeanor …” The punishment for this misdemeanor is a fine of $100 and/or imprisonment for not more than 30 days.
If an LPR has a criminal record he may be putting himself at risk when he renews his green card. He should consult an immigration attorney before submitting his I-90 application. If his crime is a ground for deportation, he may be placed under removal proceedings and will appear before an immigration judge.
Crimes that may subject a person to deportation include aggravated felony, crimes involving drugs, domestic violence, crimes involving moral turpitude and sex crimes.
This procedure for renewing an expired green card does not apply to those who obtained conditional residence on account of their marriage to US citizens or lawful permanent residents or on account of their EB-5 commercial enterprise and financial investment. Conditional residents are issued a green card that is valid for two years. In this case, they need to file a different form, which is I-751 to Remove the Conditions of their green card if they obtained it through marriage or I-829 if they obtained it through EB-5 investment.